Protein hormone produced in the bone cells (osteoblasts). Binds calcium and is involved in bone regeneration and formation. Once released into the blood can act like a hormone and has direct effects i.e. it affects the beta cells of the pancreas and in turn can increase insulin production. In the fats cells increases the production of adiponectin which in turn increases the sensitivity to insulin. In muscles cells it promotes energy availability and is involved in exercise capacity. In the testes it stimulates testosterone synthesis and is involved therefore in male fertility as it is involved in testosterone production

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