Ultimate fertility investigation for men
The proportion of men at risk of requiring fertility treatment has grown significantly in recent years. Lifestyle, diet, age, and environment can all impact on the complications of a man’s ability to create healthy, strong and viable sperm capable of successfully fertilizing an ovum.
Male fertility is not only just down to sperm and testosterone levels. It is the combination of numerous health and lifestyle factors that can present in an individual. Making it imperative to look at the bigger picture; considering the health and functionality of the body’s systems.
Our Fertility for Men test is created to help assess the ability and dynamics of healthy sperm production (steroid hormone production). It will also help to identify any system dysfunctions which may impact male fertility. Using key markers that consider sex hormone production, stress, thyroid hormones, blood sugar management, key mineral nutrient status, and viral or toxic markers of concern.
As a clinician, it is critical to offer the full picture to those looking to begin a family, with FunctionalDX fertility testing we look outside of the typical fertility hormone test markers to review the full health picture of your clients. Identifying areas of dysfunction that can impact on their fertility success.
This comprehensive test includes male hormone markers including prostate markers, thyroid, autoantibody markers, homocysteine, Zinc, and metals, including Aluminum, levels of which have been implicated in male fertility issues.
Reveal more about your client’s health picture, is their body ready, willing and able to perform? Our FDX Fertility for Men assessment analyses 13 body systems, 7 accessory systems, 7 macronutrient systems, 14+ micro-nutrient deficiencies and over 40 clinical dysfunction assessments to provide the most advanced, comprehensive fertility reporting on the market today.
Also known as holotranscobalamin also see Vitamin B12. Active B12 accounts for approximately 10 to 20% of total B12 levels. Considered to be a more sensitive marker than serum B12 as it degrades faster than serum B12 with a short life span making it a more sensitive indicator or B12 deficiency.See full description
The most abundant metal and in the earth’s crust. Widely used in manufacturing, health and beauty products including antiperspirants, and lipsticks as well as edible cake decorations and more. Exposure is common and excess is detrimental to health and wellbeing and long term exposure and overload to excretory processes can lead to increased levels and elevated risks of toxicity as well as increasing cognitive risks including Alzheimer’s and Dementia as well as associations with anaemia, and bone strength reduction.See full description
Apo A is a constituent of HDL and assists in the binding of cholesterol and fats transport from blood vessels and cells preventing plaque formation. It has a role in cognitive function, in the immune system as an agent against pathogens and detoxifies bacterial toxins. Used as a predictor for CVD and inflammation.See full description
Apolipoprotein B is the backbone of LDL, and is part of the delivery system to deliver cholesterol from the liver. A main contributor to atherosclerosis and heart disease. Linked to immune function and is a measure of CVD risk. Levels are linked with obesity, hypothyroidism, insulin resistance and diabetes. Risk factors also include Alzheimer’s, cognitive function, heart disease and possibly cancer.See full description
Copper transport protein binds 95% of circulating copper. Interacts with 120 other proteins. Is an acute phase protein and responds to inflammation and inflammatory diseases. Used to assess copper sufficiency, inflammation needs for copper, zinc, anaemia, toxicity, and immune function. Is also used as an Alzheimer’s risk marker, Parkinson’s, Iron status, obesity, and liver damage.See full description
Used as a marker to identify skin health, mental health, toxicity esp. estrogen and clearance of, heart disease risk, diabetes bone loss and immune function. Used to assess copper sufficiency, inflammation and presence of inflammatory diseases, Levels used to assess needs for copper, zinc, anaemia, immune function, inflammatory conditions, PMS, pathogen infection, adrenal insufficiency.See full description
Known as ‘the stress hormone’ this steroid hormone plays an essential role in helping the body respond to stress, and regulates a wide range of body processes, including metabolism and immune response. This test helps identify degrees of stress levels, diagnose adrenal glands dysfunction, and disorders such as underactive, or damaged adrenal glands due to insufficient or excessive cortisol production.See full description
The hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an important precursor to hormones such as the sex hormones progesterone, testosterone and the oestrogens. It is produced predominantly in the adrenal glands and is involved in the Fight or Flight stress response to resume a calm state after perceived danger/stress has passed. As the most abundant circulating steroid in the body, it has an inﬂuence on over 150 known repair functions in both the body and brain. Increased or decreased levels may lead to many common conditions in the endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hormonal, and nervous systems.See full description
A measure of the amount of iron stored in the body. The most sensitive test to assess iron deficiency. Levels may indicate haemochromatosis, excess iron intake, inflammation, oxidative stress, liver dysfunction, excessive blood loss or iron deficiency anaemia.See full description
A soluble liver produced protein that is broken down to produce fibrin which is necessary for clot formation. Levels may indicate hypercoagulation, inflammation, trauma, infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease or increased risk of stroke and liver function.See full description
An amino acid produced through methionine metabolism. This methylation process involves Vitamins B6, B12 and folate as well as zinc and co-factors including magnesium and tri methyl glycine all required in the recycling of methionine to homocysteine and back again. Levels may indicate needs in these nutrients, oxidative stress or metabolic syndrome, risks of Alzheimer’s, CVD risks. Depression, dementia, Parkinson’s, oxidative stress, poor detoxification, IBD.See full description
Similar in structure to insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 plays a prominent role in the regulation of immunity and inflammation, and an essential role in regulating endocrine growth and development. It works together with the growth hormone (GH) and stimulates the liver to produce IGF-1 which reproduces, and regenerates cells and promotes growth and development. Another important function is to strengthen tissues, thereby improving bone density and building muscle, and promoting healing.See full description
A fasting insulin test identifies the level of insulin after an 8 to 12 hour fast. Insulin is a pancreatic hormone released to manage the process of glucose being transported into the cells for energy production purposes. Levels are associated with Insulin resistance, Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, inflammation, Obesity, lipid management and risks of CVD.See full description
Released from the parathyroid glands, this hormone works with the hormone ‘calcitonin’, to help control calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood, and lower calcium levels when they get too high. It plays a crucial role in the breakdown and formation of bone.See full description
Prolactin is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland, and plays a key role in fertility, reproduction, and the stimulation of breast milk production. It is also involved in regulating the immune system, suppressing the stress response, creating and activating new neurons, and stimulating motherly (maternal) behaviour. Men and non-pregnant women generally have low levels of prolactin. In women, prolactin tests help diagnose the causes of absent or irregular menstruation, spontaneous or abnormal breast milk flow or other unexplained discharges. In men, they can help diagnose erectile dysfunction or loss of sex drive (libido).See full description
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein that is made in the prostate in two forms - complexed and free. Complexed PSA is bound to other proteins, while free PSA is not bound to anything. Total PSA tests are mainly used to screen for prostate cancer; however, it is not specific enough to diagnose prostate cancer on its own. Free PSA tests can help men with slightly high total PSA levels to help determine whether or not they should get a prostate biopsy. Prostate tumors normally produce complexed PSA, while normal prostate cells produce free PSA. Free PSA tests are used to find the PSA free/total ratio. A high ratio means that you do not need a prostate biopsy.See full description
See Folate. Red cell folate is considered to be a measure for intracellular sufficiency.See full description
A more accurate measure of magnesium can be obtained via red blood cells which contain 2 – 3x more Mg than serum. Mg is a mineral necessary for energy production, muscle contraction, nerve function, maintenance of strong bones, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and over 300 enzymatic processes in the body. It is obtained through diet and is absorbed in the small intestine and colon. Levels may indicate deficiency due to malabsorption or gastrointestinal disorders.See full description
This protein is produced by the liver, controlled by sex hormones, thyroid hormones, insulin, and dietary factors and binds to sex hormones - testosterone, DHT (dihydrotestosterone), and oestrogen (estradiol). It helps transport them in the blood. SHBG levels, which change with age, vary between men and women, and can help control the levels of androgens and oestrogens in the body. It can help to determine testosterone levels in the blood, since around 40-60% of total testosterone is bound to SHBG in men.See full description
Bioavailable testosterone levels, which peak in the early morning, represent the amount of free testosterone and the testosterone bound to albumin (but not SHBG). Unlike the over 50% of testosterone bound to SHBG which is strongly attached, testosterone bound to albumin is weakly attached and easily able to detach and become free testosterone. It is called “bioavailable” because it is easily “available” to be used by cells. All three types of testosterone (Total, Bioavailable and Free) decline with age in both men and women after peaking in the late 20s. Because SHBG binds up more testosterone as we age, bioavailable testosterone levels decline even more than total testosterone levels. This is of concern because low testosterone levels are associated with heart disease risk factors. It is useful to test free testosterone levels in men and women who have symptoms of low testosterone but have normal total testosterone levels and can also be used to identify Andropause (the male equivalent to the female menopause) which is a collection of symptoms including fatigue and decreased libido in middle-aged men that is due to the age-related testosterone decline.See full description
Free testosterone (approximately 2-3%) is the portion of testosterone that is not bound to any proteins in the blood and is “free” to enter the cells and exert biological effects. 33-54% percent is weakly bound to albumin (called BIOAVAILABLE), with the rest bound to SHBG (44-65%).See full description
This test measures the amount of both testosterones bound to proteins (sex hormone-binding globulin and albumin) and free (not bound to any proteins) testosterone in the blood. Testosterone is a hormone mainly produced by the testes in men, or ovaries in women. Testosterone’s diverse range of effects on many different organs and tissues includes bone health building and maintaining muscle mass and strength; increasing lean body mass and fat loss; increasing red blood cell production; improving libido and sexual function, increasing sperm production, regulating mood, brain function and memory.See full description
Also known as TG Abs. Used to determine if there is a thyroid autoimmune dysfunction ie Hashimoto’s (Hypo) or Graves (hyper) where the thyroglobulin in the thyroid is attacked.See full description
Also known as TPO. TPO is a thyroid gland produced enzyme that attaches the Iodine molecule to tyrosine to make T4. Levels are used to determine an autoimmune thyroid condition - Hashimoto’s.See full description
Zinc is not stored in the body and dietary intake is essential. Zinc is involved in over 300 enzyme functions. Including the metabolism and function of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. As well involved in immune function, skin health and healing and senses of taste and smell amongst many. Levels are used to assess zinc status at a serum level, hydrochloric acid production, male fertility, inflammation, copper status amongst many.See full description
You will need a main test first
LDH is made up of a number of enzymes that are contained in different body tissues. This test identifies the levels of the different LDH enzymes so tat the site of damage, dysfunction and imbalance can be identified.
Investigation for identifying autoimmune disease on the TSH receptors usually prevalent in Grave's disease (90%).
An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies investigation can indicate a current, recent, or past EBV infection. Including: IgG, IgM and Anti Nuclear Antigen (ANA)
Serum measured unbound testosterone.
Affects levels of insulin carbohydrate fat and protein levels. Used in supplemental form to assist CH2O metabolism. Note Cr exists in 2 forms Cr (VI) which is toxic and enters the red blood cells and Cr (III). Plasma test measures total Cr and to ID Cr (VI) it will be necessary to measure RBC Cr levels
Protein hormone produced in the bone cells (osteoblasts). Binds calcium and is involved in bone regeneration and formation. Once released into the blood can act like a hormone and has direct effects i.e. it affects the beta cells of the pancreas and in turn can increase insulin production
Alkaline phosphatase, is made of isoenzymes, each one relating to the tissues they are found including liver, bone, intestine, and placenta.
Reticulocytes are newly formed and immature red blood cells that are produced in the bone marrow. They are reported as a percentage of total Red Blood Cells and can be used as an indicator or an individual's ability to produce RBCs. Levels are used to assess the bone marrow’s response to anaemia. and the effects of supplementation in the case of B12, B6 and Folate anaemias.
Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase. An enzyme that catalyses the energy (glucose to pyruvate) producing pathway that supplies reducing energy by maintaining the level of NADPH by reducing NADP to NADPH and compound essential in the biosynthesis of fatty acids
Examines the levels of specific blood proteins the Globulins. These are divided into Albumin as well as Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta, and Gamma globulins
Type 1 diabetes investigation or latent autoimmune adult diabetes. GAD enzyme is required for the healthy function of the pancreas. The presence of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies indicates Type 1 diabetes. Can be used to assess if gestational diabetes is type 1. Also can indicate neurological disorders. Consider in relation to gluten sensitivity and coeliac disease
Measures the amount of lipoprotein associated phospholipase in the blood. Primarily associated with LDL which carried the Lp-PLA2 to the coronary artery walls activating an immune response making plaque. Levels are associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke and is an excellent coronary marker
Considered to be the metabolic brake to counteract the effects of the metabolic accelerator that is T3. Levels are used to identify possible diabetes, effects of fasting, heavy metals, inflammatory, pathogen effects, inflammatory cytokines like IL6 and TN-Alpha, also an indicator of stress.
Measurement of IgG, IgM, IgE Immunoglobulins in investigations of the immune system
Known as ‘the stress hormone’ this steroid hormone plays an essential role in helping the body respond to stress, and regulates a wide range of body processes, including metabolism and immune response.
Also known as DAO. Used in the assessment of histamine intolerance which can be caused by the deficiency of DAO or an imbalance between histamine and DAO.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a male sex hormone (androgen). Androgens are endogenous steroid hormones consisting of DHEA, Androstenedione, Testosterone and DHT. DHT is the most potent hormone amongst the androgens because it is not converted to estrogen, it is considered to be a pure androgen. It is created from testosterone via the action of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase and is produced in the prostate gland, adrenal glands, liver, brain, and hair follicles. Its action is related to the tissue in which it is produced. It is a more potent hormone than testosterone (approx. 1% circulated feely as unbound), it has a slow dissociation (approx. 5x less than testosterone) and long half-life (2x affinity to the androgen receptors). During development and adult life in men, it promotes prostate growth, activity of the sebaceous glands, male pattern baldness and the development of characteristics that are typically associated with men (body hair, muscle growth, and a deep voice). In women DHT levels are associated with issues including hirsutism, amenorrhea, and increased acne.
Released from the parathyroid glands, this hormone works with the hormone ‘calcitonin’, to help control calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood, and lower calcium levels when they get too high. It plays a crucial role in the breakdown and formation of bone.
Made in the liver comprising of both LDL and Apolipoprotein A. levels, is used to assess, and associated with hypothyroidism, low sex hormone, inflammation and tissue damage, autoimmunity PCOS and kidney and heart disease.
Cancer Markers: CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3
Zinc is not stored in the body and dietary intake is essential. Zinc is involved in over 300 enzyme functions. Including the metabolism and function of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. As well involved in immune function, skin health and healing and senses of taste and smell amongst many. Levels are used to assess zinc status at a red blood cell level, hydrochloric acid production, male fertility, inflammation, copper status amongst many.
Fasting blood draw required in the morning.